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What Is 5G? As Explained by an Electrical Engineer 



'5G' refers to the fifth generation of cellular network technology, which is currently being developed.


Cellular technology is the technology that allows wireless communication to take place – for example, between your mobile phone and a cell tower, which routes your data to the internet. 5G is a telecommunications carrier-provided network service that is distinct from the 5 GHz band on your Wi-Fi router, which is used to connect to the internet.


5G offers a tenfold increase in bandwidth over 4G, an order of magnitude greater than that of 4G. Due to the fact that 5G encodes and transmits information using additional higher-frequency waves in addition to low and medium frequency radio waves, it is possible to achieve the increased bandwidth.


A network's bandwidth can be compared to the width of a highway in terms of size. The greater the width of the highway, the greater the number of lanes and vehicles that can be transported simultaneously. As a result, 5G is significantly faster and capable of supporting a greater number of devices than previous generations.


5G is capable of transmitting data at speeds of up to one gigabit per second, which is significantly faster than 4G. Using a gigabit per second connection, you can download a full-length high-definition movie in less than a minute. Is this to imply that there will be no more poor cell phone connections in densely populated areas? In the same way that increasing the number of lanes on highways does not always relieve traffic congestion, as more people use the expanded highways, 5G networks are likely to carry significantly more traffic than 4G networks, and you may still experience intermittent connectivity issues.


In addition to connecting your phone and cellular-enabled laptop, 5G will connect a wide variety of other devices, ranging from photo frames to toasters, as part of the Internet of Things revolution, which is already underway. Even though 5G can support up to a million devices per square kilometer, all of that bandwidth may be quickly consumed, necessitating the need for additional capacity – potentially even more bandwidth in the form of an even faster 5.5G network in the near future.


Flavors of 5G


5G can operate at frequencies in the low-, mid-, or high-band range, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Lower-frequency waves have a greater range but travel at a slower rate than higher-frequency waves. While the use of higher frequency waves allows for faster transmission of information, the range of these waves is relatively limited. Faster gigabit-per-second speeds are possible with 5G when the frequency is increased, and it has the potential to replace ethernet and other wired connections in the future. At the moment, higher frequency, however, comes at a higher cost, and as a result, it is only used in the most congested urban areas, stadiums, convention centers, airports, and concert halls, where the cost is justified.


A type of 5G service known as Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications can be used in situations where data must be transmitted without interruption or loss of service – for example, when controlling drones in disaster areas – and where no loss or interruption of service is acceptable. It may even be used for remote surgery in the future, if the technology becomes more reliable in the meantime.

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