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What is Active Matter




Matter is anything that has weight and occupies space, all physical objects are consists of matter, and an easily and carefully observed. 


The Three States of Matter are:

1. The solid, 

2. Liquid, and 

3. Gaseous states.


The materials we see in our day to day lives (from ice-cream to chairs to water) are made up of matter. Matter can be divided into different states such as solid, liquid and gas on the basis of intermolecular forces and the arrangement of particles. 


The three forms of matter can be converted from one state of matter to another state by changing certain environmental factors (increasing or decreasing pressure and temperature,  For example, Ice can be changed from a solid into liquid water by increasing the temperature.


The state of the matter is also characterized by the transition of different phases. 


Active Matter consists of large numbers of active agents, each of which consumes energy in order to move or to exert mechanical forces. Such systems are intrinsically out of thermal equilibrium. Thermal systems relax towards equilibrium and systems with boundary conditions imposing steady currents, active matter systems break time reversal symmetry because energy is being continually dissipated by the individual constituents. 


Active Matter systems are composed of units that consume energy. Active matter is also classified as soft matter: the most extensively studied model . Studies in active matter combines analytical techniques, numerical simulations and experiments. The significant analytical approaches include : hydrodynamics,kinetic theory, and non -equilibrium statistical physics. 


Numerical studies mainly engaged in self -propelled-particles models, making use of agent -based models such as molecular dynamics algorithms as well as computational studies of hydrodynamic equations of active fluids. The studies on biological systems extend over a wide range of scales, including animal groups (e.g., bird flocks, mammalian herds, fish schools and insect swarms, bacterial colonies, cellular tissues (e.g. epithelial tissue layers, cancer growth and embryo genesis), cytoskeleton components (e.g., in vitro motility assays, actin -myosin networks and molecular -motor driven filaments. Test on synthetic systems include self -propelled colloids (e.g., phoretically propelled particles, driven granular matter (e.g. vibrated monolayers, swarming robots and rotators.)


Concepts in Active Matter


1. Active gels: Active Gel can be used for achy muscles through muscle massage, which helps to promote blood circulation.


2.Collective motion:  This is defined as the spontaneous emergence of controlled movement in a system consisting of many self -propelled agents. Collective motion can be observed in every day to day activities for example:  flocks of birds, schools of fish, herds of animals and also in crowds and car traffic.


3 .Collective Animal:  This is a form of social behavior involving the coordinated behavior of large groups of similar animals.


Collective cell migration explain the movements of group of cells and the emergence of  collective behavior.

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