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Electric Charge is the physical nature or property of matter that causes it (that particular matter) to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative.

An atom consists of a control core called the nucleus. This is surrounded by electrons moving at different energy level called orbit. The nucleus contains two kind of particles named proton and the electron, the electron has Negative charge while the proton has Positive charge. The neutron has no charge.

The total number of positive charge of the proton is equal to the total number of negative charge of the electron this makes an atom in its normal state to be electrically neutral.

When the neutral atom gains an electron, it becomes negatively charged, because it has more negative charges than positive charges. When the neutral atom loses electron, it has a positive charge, it is therefore positively charged.

Production Of Charges

1. By Fiction Method: When two different materials are made to rubbed against each other example silk on glass, ebonite rod on fur. The glass or the ebonite rods acquires a charge.

Similarly, a glass will be positively charged and the silk becomes negatively charged. It is the gain or loss of electrons that determines whether a body is negatively or positively charged.

Plastic rods rubbed with fur acquire a negative charge and repel each other Glass rods rubbed with silk acquire a positive charge and repel each other. Positively charged objects and negatively charged objects attracts each other.

2. By Induction Method: This method is simply a process by which an insulated body or neural body is given a positive or negative charge by merely bringing it neat a known charged body.

Electric Current (I)  - Definition

Electric current can be defined end as the rate of flow of electrons along a conductor. It is measured with an insulated instrument called Ammeter. The S.I unit of current is Ampere.

Resistance (R) - Definition

Resistance is defined as the opposition to the flow of an electric current. The S.I unit of resistance is known as ohms. Resistance is measured with an instrument called ohmmeter.

Resistor - Definition

Resistor is a material that is used to resist the flow of charges along a conductor.

Ohm's Law - Definition

Ohm's law states that current moving in a given conductor I'd directly proportional to it'd potential difference across its terminal and inversely proportional to its resistance provided that the temperature and pressure remain constant.

Potential Difference (P.D) and E.M.F 
- Definition

Potential difference is the total work done in taking a unit charge from one terminal to another terminal when the cell I'd delivering current to another circuit. The instrument used in measuring p.d is called Voltmeter. The S.I unit is volts.

Electronic-magnetic Field E.M.F
 - Definition

E.M.F : This is the total work done in taking a u it charge from one terminal to another in a cell when it is not delivering current to another circuit. The instrument used in measuring E.M.F is Voltmeter.

Work Done In Electric Current
 - Definition

This can be defined as the product of the quantity of current measured in coulombs and the potential difference in volts

W.D = QV

Where Q = quantity of charges in Coulomb, V = p.d in volts.

Power In Electric Current
 - Definition

The power in electric current is the total work done in moving electric charges from one point to another with time.

Mathematically, the power in electric current = P = W.D/ Time

Distribution Of Charges

Charge distribution over a given surface depends on the nature and shape of the surface under consideration. The extent of distribution can be investigated using a proof plane.

Such investigation shows that charges are usually concentrated at places where the surface I'd sharply curved.

Similar investigation of a charge hollow conductor shows that the charge on a conductor collects only on its outside surface.

Lighting Conductors

The lighting conductors are long metal strips running from the spike end of a conductor on the top of a building to the earth. They are used to prevent building from destruction when struck by thunder.

Dramatic displays of electrical discharge, In nature are seen in lighting flashes which are common during the rainy seasons.

When electrical charges formed in thunder clouds build up the attraction between unlike charges with a cloud or between different clouds Increases steadily until opposite charges suddenly jump from cloud to cloud or from cloud to earth in the form of huge spark of electric charges.

Storage of Charges

The Electrophorus is a device for transferring and storing of electric charges. It produces electric charges by electrostatic induction. It consist of a circular metal disc or plate filled with an insulating Bund Lett and another flat disc made of a insulating materials such as Ebonite.

The ebonite disc is given a negative charge, the metal disc is then placed over the ebonite disc. There are only a few constant points between the two discs.

Hence no charges flow between them, the negative disc is now touched with the finger. The negative charges flow away through the body to the earth and the metal disc is left with only the positive charges. These charges are then stored in the disc when the handle is lifted from the ebonite. The amount of charge stored can be built up by repeating the above process.

Description And Properties Of Field

Field can be defined as a region of space under the influence of some physical agency force fields as free whose sources do not require contact with the body of which they are applied.

There are two classes of Force Fields:-

Scalar Field: it has only magnitude but no direction examples temperature, energy and density.

Vector Field: it has both magnitude and direction examples gravitational, magnetic and electric fields..

Submitted by: Floxy


  1. Electric resistance in a D.C. circuit has been measured in OHMS (Ω) along with also a material will have a value of one ohm if a potential of one volt produces a current of one ampere. Then Ohms may likewise be regarded as as volts/amps. The further resistance that a material or circuit possesses the less current will stream.Try this ohm calculator app through which you can easily came to know about the calculations of voltage,current and resistance.

  2. The absolute most crucial statistical connection among voltage, current and immunity at power is traditionally clarified as"Ohm's Law calculator". Ohm's law can be utilised to learn the proper resistor price within a circuit as soon as the voltage is understood and you'd really like to confine the existing to some certain price.


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