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As identified above, marketing is essentially a business of exchange hence; it develops as a society grows from period of self reliance to that of total mutual reliance or full division of labour. Marketing results from, as well as loads to industrialization which leads specialization with people producing in excess of their needs of certain commodities and not at all of other pressing needs of theirs. This development calls for exchange which is a characteristics feature of marketing. The development and evolution of marketing in any industry, country, or region of the world may be viewed as sequence of stages. These stages are:

(1) The Pre-Historic Stage
At the Pre-historic stage, man behaved like wild animals. There was no organized production of any type and man depended entirely on nature for his day to day supply of food which consisted mainly of fruits and grasses, purely at its first stage of harvest. At this stage the early form of exchange was that among the family members like parents giving their infant kids who could not gather same for their own consumption.

(2) The Stage of Self- Sufficiency


During this time man invented rough tools with which he? Engaged in quassi-faiming and production of his food needs. The technology was at its very first stage and output was hardly enough for the farmer. Hence there was no exchange in the form we have it in today's marketing scene

(3) The Barter Stage
As a result of his continued effort, man at this was able to come up with adequate output of crops he planted to feed himself and that of immediate family and they have some remains. During this stage the early man had developed other skills as pottery, basket making and so on to aid his farming then he can engage in physical exchange of these products with other people say killed animals by professional hunters.

(4) The Stage of Money Economy


As a popular saying has it, necessity is the mother of invention Man was not satisfied with the (fatter system because of its many problems the problems hare include that of double coincidence of wants and that of measurement. Money in form came to take caw of those problems and helped producers different products to concentrate in their respective holds. Introduction of money helped to bring about a boom in the economy of those days

(5) The Age Of Early Capitalism

The introduction of money made it possible for man to accumulate and save it in form of wealth with money solving as a common unit of exchange, it was possible to transform it into other things and those who had a lot it had as then command many other things that would be acquired with money This development fuelled the economy the more and the population was divided into the have sand the have riots. While the- haves became the lords the nots were available for hire and fire and a class society emerged.

(6) The Stage Of Mass Production

This stage is a natural extension of the proceeding stage of early capitalism. It resulted from efficiency on the part of the producers there was a growth of hade as producers went further with their producers in search of buyers Competition came in with the participation of more wealth men in production and the general level of output was the increase. This stage also saw some developments in the marketing methods as competition resulted in such measures as price reduction, branding or naming of products, packaging of goods and differentiation -ill designed to gain advantage over the competitors

(7) The Affluent Society


This is the stage that signifies the abundance of man's basic needs At this stage, marketing profession has a great challenge because consumers have grown to know their rights and .it the same time are exposed to various

Alternatives of solving their problems. Competition among producers is genred up the more arid only highly skilled professionals an. able to keep their products bought in the market.

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