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An ecosystem is a community of living organisms consisting of producers, consumers, and decomposers. A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms (biotic components) with their physical environment (abiotic component).

Major Characteristics

1. These biotic and abiotic components are considered as conjugated or linked through nutrient cycles and flow of energy.

2. Biotic components of ecosystem are the living organisms,

3. Abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms.

4. The relationship between the abiotic components and the biotic components of the ecosystem is termed 'holocoenosis' - The nature of the action of the environment on living organisms.

5. Ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific limited spaces in different locations.

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