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Characteristics of Database

Normally, data was prearranged in file formats. DBMS was a new model then, and all the research was made to make it overcome the deficiencies in conventional style of data management. 

A modern DBMS has below characteristics:

Consistency, Query Language, Real-world entity, ACID Properties, Relation-based tables, Less redundancy, Multiuser and Concurrent Access, Multiple views, Security, Isolation of data.

Consistency: This is a state where all relation in a database remains consistent. There are many methods and techniques that can be used to detect attempt of leaving database in inconsistent state. DBMS can provide higher consistency as compared to earlier forms of data storing applications like file-processing systems.

Query Language: DBMS is provided with query language, which makes it more able to retrieve and influence data. A user can apply as many and as different filtering options as essential to retrieve a set of data. Normally it was impossible to use file-processing system where they are being used.

Real-world entity: DBMS is more sensible and make uses of real-world entities to design its architecture. It uses the behavior and attributes too. For instance, a school database may use students as an entity and their age as an attribute.

ACID Properties: DBMS abides to the theories of Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability (generally shortened as ACID). These theories are used on transactions, which manipulate data in a database. ACID characteristics assist the database stay healthy in multi-transactional environments and in case of malfunction.

Relation-based tables: DBMS permits entities and relations among them to form tables. A user can know the structural design of a database just by looking at the table names.

Less redundancy: DBMS abides to the rules of normalization, which divides a relation when any of its attributes is having redundancy in values. Normalization is a mathematically rich and scientific procedure that reduces data redundancy.

Multiuser and Concurrent Access: DBMS supports multi-user environment and permits them to access and manipulate data in parallel. However there are restrictions on transactions when users attempt to handle the same data item, but users are always unaware of them.

Multiple views: DBMS offers multiple views for different users. A user who is in the Sales department will have a different view of database than a person working in the Production department. This attribute enables the users to have a concentrate view of the database according to their requirements.

Security: Attributes like multiple views provide security to some level where users are not able to access data of other users and departments. DBMS provides techniques to impose constraints while entering data into the database and retrieving the same at a later stage. DBMS provides many different stages of security features, which makes multiple users to have different views with different features. 

Isolation of data and application: Database system is completely different from its data. A database is a dynamic entity, whereas data is said to be passive, on which the database works and organizes. DBMS also records metadata, which is data about data, to make its own process easier.

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