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Substitution reaction is a chemical reaction in which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group. Substitution is the reaction between methane and chlorine in diffused sunlight. When a mixture of methane and chlorine is exposed to ultraviolet light - typically sunlight - a substitution reaction occurs and the organic product is chloromethane.
CH4 + Cl2 ----- CH3Cl + HCl
However, the reaction doesn't stop there, and all the hydrogens in the methane can in turn be replaced by chlorine atoms. That means that you could get any of chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane or tetrachloromethane.

CH4 + Cl2 ----- CH3Cl + HCl

CH3Cl + Cl2 ----- CH2Cl2 + HCl
CH2Cl2 + Cl2 ----- CHCl3 + HCl
CHCl3 + Cl2 ------ CCl4 + HCl

You might think that you could control which product you got by the proportions of methane and chlorine you used, but it isn't as simple as that. If you use enough chlorine you will eventually get CCl4, but any other proportions will alway
s lead to a mixture of products.

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