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Scientific Knowledge

The ultimate source of scientific activity is the human experience by
observing objects and events. Events in this sense could be regarded as
interactions among objects. One does not have to be a scientist in order
to recognise that some objects have striking similarities and that under
similar conditions, these objects appear to interact in similar ways.

People’s modes of behaviours are often based on concepts and structures
that reflect internal assumptions about the similarity of objects and the
consistent manner in which they interact. These internal assumptions are
always interpreted in various ways by people. For people with little or
no scientific background, such assumptions are usually based upon
social, religious or cultural experiences acquired through communication
with other people.

Science and scientific knowledge militates against assumptions. Science
suggests that there is a better way to deal with the biological and
physical worlds. Scientific knowledge and activities strive to articulate
natural phenomena with some systematic scheme that can be used as a
framework for perceiving, organising and dealing with these phenomena
in more rational ways.

Science is a human activity and scientific knowledge is a human
creation. For it to be communicated to other persons or stored for future
reference, scientific knowledge is expressed in symbols.

Natural phenomena or objects must be well classified before
relationships could be interpreted. These objects must first be classified
into groups and then the interactions among them also classified, that is
the events between the objects. Once objects and events have been
classified into types, one can then look for consistency in the types of
interactions that occur among a selected set of objects under a given set
of conditions. Such a consistency, when found is interpreted as a
relationship among classes of objects under certain conditions and may
be thought of as an empirical law.

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