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Dangling Modifiers

Modifiers are said to dangle when they are not consistent with the
subject – predicate relationship in the sentence. This means that the
action attributed to the subject of the sentence cannot normally be
performed by the subject as in the following sentence:

Sitting in the Convocation Park, a motor cycle flew past.
Knowledge of sentence structure would make one regard the motor
cycle as the subject of the sentence and the performer of the action of
sitting but common sense tells us that a motor cycle cannot sit. The
phrase sitting in the Convocation Park
therefore dangles because it does
not logically relate to the subject of the sentence ‘motor cycle’. Examine
the following:

- Running to the notice board my scores and grades were seen.
- Feeling completely exhausted a bed was needed.
- Meeting Akon for the first time her mode of dressing repelled me.

Note:that there is no logical relationship between the italicised words
and the subjects in each case. The sentences can be re-written thus:

- Running to the notice board, I saw my scores and grades.
- Feeling completely exhausted, I decided I needed a bed rest.
- Meeting Akon for the first time, I was repelled by her mode of

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